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Version: 5.x

ABSTRACT operator

The ABSTRACT operator - creating an abstract action.


ABSTRACT [type [exclusionType]] [FIRST | LAST] [CHECKED] (argClassName1, ..., argClassNameN) 


The ABSTRACT operator creates an abstract action, the implementation of which can be defined later (for example, in other modules dependent on the module containing the ABSTRACT action). Implementations are added to the action using the ACTION+ statement. When executing MULTI or CASE type abstract actions, their matching implementation is selected and executed. The selection of the matching implementation depends on the selection conditions that are defined when adding implementations, and on the ABSTRACT operator type.

  • CASE - a general case. The selection condition will be explicitly specified in the implementation using the WHEN block.
  • MULTI - a polymorphic form. The selection condition is that the parameters match the implementation signature. This type is the default type and need not be explicitly specified.

The type of mutual exclusion of an operator determines whether several conditions for the implementation of an abstract action can simultaneously be met with a certain set of parameters. The EXCLUSIVE type indicates that implementation conditions cannot be met simultaneously. The OVERRIDE type allows several simultaneously fulfilled conditions, while which implementation is ultimately selected is determined by the keywords FIRST and LAST.

When performing a LIST abstract action, all implementations are executed sequentially. The implementation order is determined by the keywords FIRST and LAST.

The ABSTRACT operator cannot be used inside the {...} operator.


  • type

    Type of abstract action. It is specified by one of these keywords:

    • CASE
    • MULTI
    • LIST

    The default value is MULTI.

  • exclusionType

    Type of mutual exclusion. One of these keywords: EXCLUSIVE or OVERRIDE. Unless explicitly specified, in a MULTI abstract action the default type of mutual exclusion is EXCLUSIVE, and in a CASE action the default type is OVERRIDE. For a LIST abstract action the type of mutual exclusion is not specified.


    Keywords. When the word FIRST is specified, implementations will be added to the top of the implementations list; when LAST is specified, implementations will be added to the end of the implementations list. Unless specified, the default is FIRST (except LIST, where the default is LAST)

    For abstract actions such as CASE and MULTI with the type of mutual exclusion OVERRIDE, specifying FIRST will mean that of the matching implementations, the last one added will be executed. For actions such as LIST, specifying FIRST will mean that implementations will be executed in the reverse order of their addition.


    Keyword. If specified, the platform will automatically check that at least one implementation is defined for all descendants of the argument classes (or exactly one, if the conditions are mutually exclusive).

  • argClassName1, ..., argClassNameN

    List of class names of property arguments. Each name is defined by a class ID.


exportXls 'Export to Excel' ABSTRACT CASE (Order); // ABSTRACT CASE OVERRIDE LAST is created         
exportXls (Order o) + WHEN name(currency(o)) == 'USD' THEN {
MESSAGE 'Export USD not implemented';


CLASS Task1 : Task;
name = DATA STRING[100] (Task);
run (Task1 t) + {
MESSAGE 'Run Task1 ' + name(t);

CLASS OrderDetail;
price = DATA NUMERIC[14,2] (OrderDetail);

CLASS InvoiceDetail;
price = DATA NUMERIC[14,2] (InvoiceDetail);
fill ABSTRACT LIST (OrderDetail, InvoiceDetail); // ABSTRACT LIST LAST

fill (OrderDetail od, InvoiceDetail id) + {
price(id) <- price(od);